Database Management Basics

Database management is the process for managing data that supports the organization’s business processes. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications making edits as needed as well as monitoring changes in data and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is an element of a company’s overall informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) that made it possible to store and retrieve massive amounts of information for a range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that are organized according to a certain schema, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references among tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, called attributes, which provide information about the data entities. Relational models, which were developed by E. F. ‚ÄúTedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most used database type today. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also easier to update data because it doesn’t require changing many sections of the databases.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level is the way the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of various external views based on different data models. It also could include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.

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